Permanent — contains ammonia and hydrogen peroxide. Permanent dye penetrates deeply into the hair structure, is the most resistant (lasts 1.5-2 months), radically changes color and is suitable for lightening.
Disadvantages of permanent paint: destruction of the protective layer of hair (cuticle), unpleasant odor, the need for special care for the hair, the likelihood of scalp burns and allergies. Also, after using permanent paint, it is difficult to return to the original color.
Permanent paints are suitable for women who want to keep the chosen color for a long time. Also, these tools perfectly paint over gray hair.
semi-permanent (tinted) — differs from the previous type in a lower concentration of ammonia and hydrogen peroxide. In some embodiments, ammonia and hydrogen peroxide are completely absent. Therefore, the paint is less aggressive on the hair, and its smell is not so “poisonous”. These products rarely cause allergies and scalp burns.
The main disadvantage of semi-permanent paint is low color fastness (color lasts for a month). But when buying, it should be borne in mind that the paint does not stain the gray hair and does not lighten the hair.
Semi-permanent dyes do not change, but only shade the main hair color, which allows you to use these products to correct or update it. These paints are used by women who doubt the chosen color.
Permanent and semi-permanent dyes are mixed with an oxidizing agent (oxygen), which provides permanent hair coloring. The main component in the oxidizer is hydrogen peroxide.
Natural — contains natural ingredients, usually henna. Such a tool does not harm the hair, provides a lasting color, has a low cost, improves the condition of the curls. Disadvantages: complex staining and removal process, unpredictable results, limited color palette.
Dye direct action — is a pure pigment. Most often there are very bright, rich and pure colors. It is mainly used for creative coloring. Among the shortcomings, it is worth noting that some pigments are not completely washed out of the hair, that is, after dyeing, you will have to completely grow your hair.
Ammonia — Resistant paint that radically changes hair color. This paint provides a long-lasting coloring effect and removes gray hair well. But ammonia adversely affects the hair and makes them defenseless against any adverse factor. Ammonia has an unpleasant odor and is not suitable for people who are allergic to this substance.
In different dyes, the concentration of ammonia is 0.02-15%. The higher this percentage, the more effective the remedy. At the same time, the harm from the use of such paint increases.
Ammonia-free – does not contain ammonia, with a minimum concentration of hydrogen peroxide. Such a tool more carefully colors the hair, has a restoring effect, gives dull hair shine and freshness. But ammonia-free paint is quickly washed off, slightly changes the color of the hair (by 2-3 tones), and does not eliminate gray hair well. Compared to the ammonia analogue, such a tool will cost more.
Ammonia-free paints can be permanent and semi-permanent. In the first case, the product contains alkaline ingredients for deep hair dyeing. In semi-permanent ammonia-free dyes, acid dyes are used instead of alkalis, which color the hair superficially, but act more delicately.
Cream paint — has the thickest consistency, does not flow and is evenly distributed along the entire length of the hair. True, the dye is consumed quite quickly.
Gel paint — characterized by a more liquid texture and remarkably colors very thick hair. Such a tool can spread, which means you need to work with it very carefully.
mousse paint — It has a light, foamy consistency and ease of use. Does not spread and is well distributed through the hair, allows you to do without a separate container and brush. Good choice for home coloring.
Powder paint — requires preliminary preparation (the powder is mixed with hot water). In this case, oxygen is not used. In this form, natural dyes are produced.
Corrector paint (mixton) — a special tool that makes it possible to emphasize the desired and remove unwanted shades.
Mass market — budget paints intended for a wide range of consumers. The content of natural ingredients in such products is minimized, but the concentration of hydrogen peroxide is very high and amounts to 9-12%. Such products may contain harmful salts of heavy metals, such as lead or mercury.
middle market — middle class paints. These products are distinguished by a higher concentration of natural ingredients than mass production. But such dyes will cost more.
Hair dyes of the «mass market» and «middle market» categories are optimal for dyeing at home.
Professional (salon) — expensive paints designed for use by professional hairdressers in beauty salons.
Professional dyes, along with active substances, contain components that have a beneficial effect on the structure of the hair. They are supplied without an oxidizing agent, which allows you to choose the option that has the desired percentage of hydrogen peroxide (within 1.5-12%). But working with these tools requires special knowledge.
Ready set — consists of paint, balm, oxygen, disposable gloves. Thus, the consumer receives everything necessary for hair coloring. Ready-made kits are mass-produced.
For mixing — paint, to which you want to choose the right oxidizing agent. Such cosmetics are professional.
direct action — paint that is used without oxygen. This paint is easy to use and gentle on the hair, but provides only superficial staining. These paints are expensive and rare.
Level 0 — the paint is washed off after 1-3 hair washing procedures. This paint allows you to refresh the color between stains.
Level 1 — the paint withstands 6-8 shampoo applications. Such paint does not paint over gray hair and does not lighten hair.
Level 2 – the paint is washed off after 20-28 hair washing sessions. This paint allows you to change the hair color by 2-3 tones.
Level 3 — The paint lasts a very long time. Makes it possible to radically change the color, which must be updated as the hair grows back. The best choice for painting gray hair.
Important: The higher the level of durability, the more aggressively the dye acts on the hair.
The color of hair dyes is indicated using a two- or three-digit numerical code, which is separated by a hyphen, dot or slash.
The first number describes the pure color (tone), which is responsible for the color depth, the second — the main shade, the third — the additional one. A code of one or two digits indicates that there are no additional pigments in the paint.
Pure color (tone):
- 1 — black;
- 2 — very dark chestnut;
- 3 — dark chestnut;
- 4 — chestnut;
- 5 — light chestnut;
- 6 — dark blond;
- 7 — light brown;
- 8 — light blond;
- 9 — very light blond, blond;
- 10 — light blond;
- 11 — very light blond;
- 12 — platinum blonde.
- 0 — green pigment (natural, neutral tone);
- 1 — blue-violet pigment (ash row);
- 2 — greenish pigment (matte row);
- 3 — yellow-orange pigment (golden row);
- 4 — copper pigment (red row);
- 5 — red-violet pigment (mahogany row);
- 6 — blue-violet pigment (violet row);
- 7 — red-brown pigment (havana — rich dark brown color).
Additional shade (30-50% of the main shade):
- 1 — ashy;
- 2 — purple;
- 3 — gold;
- 4 — copper;
- 5 — mahogany;
- 6 — red;
- 7 — coffee.
Some manufacturers use an alphanumeric code, in which the letter indicates the color, and the number indicates its penetration depth:
- C — ashy;
- PL — platinum;
- A — intensive clarification;
- N — natural, natural;
- E — beige;
- M — matte;
- W — chestnut (brown);
- R — red;
- G — golden;
- K — copper;
- I — intensive;
- V, F — purple.
Hair dyes must be selected based on the color type — the combination of skin, eye and hair colors.
There are four color types.
- Winter — these girls have very dark or pale skin, blue, brown or green eyes, dark or ashy hair. Suitable for: all dark shades, including coffee and chocolate colors. Not suitable: paints of light shades, with the exception of platinum.
- Summer — these girls are characterized by light skin, gray or green eyes, light blond or light brown hair. Suitable for: cold palette tones, such as platinum or ash blond. Not suitable: black, red, bronze, copper, golden colors.
- Vesna — such girls have fair skin, gray or light green eyes, light brown or blond hair with a warm tint. Suitable: amber, copper, caramel, wheat color or cappuccino. Not suitable: paints of dark saturated colors.
- Autumn — these girls have white or swarthy skin, brown or green eyes, brown or red hair. Suitable: caramel, amber, chocolate, golden-copper shade. Not suitable: paints with blue pigment, including ashen.
Most paints are designed for all types of hair. But often the right choice of products depends on the characteristics of the hair.
For natural hair, when coloring tone-on-tone, you should choose an ammonia-free product.
Products for gray hair usually contain ammonia, but ammonia-free dyes are also found. Ammonia paints are optimal for thick and coarse hair, ammonia-free products for soft and thin hair.
Approximate parameters when choosing paint for gray hair:
- less than 50% gray hair — paints of tone level 7 and darker;
- more than 50% gray hair — paints of 7-9 tone levels;
- almost 100% gray hair — any dye of tone level 1-8 will do.
When choosing a dye for dyed hair or if a woman wants to radically change the color of her hair, it is worth remembering:
- the higher the percentage of oxygen, the lighter the color will be;
- the higher the concentration of the oxidizing agent, the more aggressive the paint.
Therefore, when lightening dark hair, dyeing is done in several stages in order to minimize harm to curls.
The percentage of hydrogen peroxide in the oxidizer:
- 1.9% — used for semi-permanent staining;
- 3% — changes hair color by 1 tone, suitable for working with thin and dry hair, dyeing in darker tones or if less than 25% gray hair;
- 6% — changes hair color by 1-2 tones, optimal with 50% gray hair;
- 9% — changes hair color by 2-3 tones, is used for coloring coarse hair and 100% gray hair;
- 12% — changes hair color by 3-4 tones, makes it possible to dye very thick curls.
Color maintenance — allows you to keep the hair color for a long time. This product does not contain ammonia and therefore gently affects the hair.
Gray hair camouflage — masks the presence of gray hair by eliminating the bright contrast between gray hair and curls that have retained color. Such paint is characterized by natural shades and thus hides the very fact of hair coloring. Many products do not contain ammonia. Means for camouflaging gray hair are also used by men.
Coloring tone-on-tone — preserves the natural color and makes it more saturated. Such paint does not contain ammonia and is able to change the hair color by no more than 2-3 tones. Suitable for painting over gray hair, if the amount of gray hair is relatively small.
creative coloring — makes it possible to give the hair an unusual look (segmental dyeing, screen dyeing). With the help of creative coloring, you can dye your hair blue, pink or other unnatural color. These paints are highly durable.
Color stabilization — enhances the durability of the paint and thereby fixes the color.
The colors contain caring ingredients that minimize the damage from ammonia and hydrogen peroxide and improve the condition of the hair. These components include the following:
- avocado oil — characterized by a nourishing effect, useful for damaged and dry hair;
- argan oil — gives curls softness and shine;
- olive oil — makes strands stronger and more elastic;
- shea butter (karite) — nourishes and softens the hair;
- plant extracts — moisturize and nourish the hair;
- keratin — nourishes and strengthens hair, prevents color loss;
- panthenol — has a strengthening and regenerating effect, gives shine to curls;
- liquid silk — restores the structure of the hair;
- honey — has a beneficial effect on the scalp.
organic — made on the basis of raw materials grown in environmentally friendly conditions. This paint does not contain harmful synthetic components, and the natural ingredients in the composition improve the condition of the scalp and hair. Cons: high price, the likelihood of an allergy to plant materials, it is impossible to completely paint over gray hair, relatively low durability.
Without smell — does not cause unpleasant olfactory sensations during hair coloring. Such funds are classified as ammonia-free.